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EU Directive of the Incineration of waste

11 June 2019, Tuesday

DIRECTIVE  2000/76/EC  OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT  AND  OF THE COUNCIL of  4  December  2000 on  the  incineration  of  waste

THE EUROPEAN  PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL  OF THE EUROPEAN  UNION,

Having  regard   to   the   Treaty  establishing  the   European Community, and  in  particular Article 175(1)  thereof,

Having regard to  the  proposal  from  the  Commission (1), Having regard to  the  Opinion  of  the  Economic and Social Committee (2),

Having  regard  to  the  Opinion   of  the  Committee  of  the Regions (3),

Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty (4), and in the light of the joint text approved by the  Conciliation Committee on  11  October  2000,

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Whereas:

(1)       The  fifth  Environment  Action  Programme:  Towards sustainability — A European Community programme of policy and  action  in  relation to  the  environment  and sustainable development, supplemented by Decision No

2179/98/EC  on  its review (5), sets as an objective that critical loads and  levels of  certain  pollutants  such  as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals and  dioxins should  not  be  exceeded, while in terms of air quality the objective is that all people should be effectively protected against recognised health risks from air pollution. That Programme further sets as an objective a 90 % reduction of dioxin emissions of identi- fied sources by  2005  (1985  level) and  at  least 70 % reduction from all pathways of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and  lead (Pb) emissions in  1995.

(2)       The Protocol on persistent organic pollutants signed by the Community within the framework of the United Nations  Economic Commission  for  Europe  (UN-ECE) Convention on  long-range transboundary  air pollution sets  legally binding  limit  values for  the  emission  of dioxins and  furans of 0,1  ng/m; TE (Toxicity Equiva- lents) for installations burning more than 3 tonnes per hour of municipal solid waste, 0,5 ng/m; TE for installa- tions burning more than 1 tonne per hour  of medical

(3)      The Protocol on Heavy Metals signed by the Community within  the  framework of  the  UN-ECE  Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution sets legally binding limit values for the emission of particulate of  10 mg/m3  for hazardous and medical waste incineration and  for  the  emission of  mercury  of  0,05  mg/m3 for hazardous waste incineration and 0,08 mg/m3   for municipal waste incineration.

(4)      The International Agency for Research on  Cancer and the World Health Organisation indicate that some poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic. Therefore, Member States may set emission limit values for PAHs among  other  pollutants.

(5)      In  accordance with  the  principles of  subsidiarity and proportionality  as set out  in  Article 5  of  the  Treaty, there  is  a  need  to  take  action  at  the  level of  the Community. The precautionary  principle provides the basis for further measures. This Directive confines itself to minimum requirements for incineration and co-incin- eration  plants.

(6)      Further, Article 174 provides that Community policy on the environment  is to contribute to protecting human health.

(7)      Therefore, a high level of environmental protection and human health protection requires the setting and maintaining of stringent operational conditions, technical requirements and emission limit values for plants incinerating or co-incinerating waste within the Community. The limit values set should prevent or  limit as far as practicable negative effects on the environment and the resulting risks to  human  health.

(8)      The  Communication  from  the  Commission  on   the review of the  Community Strategy for waste management assigns prevention of waste the first priority, followed  by  reuse  and  recovery  and  finally by  safe disposal of waste; in its Resolution of 24 February 1997 on a Community Strategy for waste management (6), the Council reiterated its conviction that  waste prevention should be the first priority of any national waste policy in relation to minimising waste production and the hazardous  properties  of waste.

(3)      The Protocol on Heavy Metals signed by the Community within  the  framework of  the  UN-ECE  Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution sets legally binding limit values for the emission of particulate of

10  mg/m3  for hazardous and medical waste incineration and  for  the  emission of  mercury  of  0,05  mg/m3    for hazardous waste incineration and 0,08 mg/m3   for municipal waste incineration.

(4)      The International Agency for Research on  Cancer and the World Health Organisation indicate that some poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic. Therefore, Member States may set emission limit values for PAHs among  other  pollutants.

(5)      In  accordance with  the  principles of  subsidiarity and proportionality  as set out  in  Article 5  of  the  Treaty, there  is  a  need  to  take  action  at  the  level of  the Community. The precautionary  principle provides the basis for further measures. This Directive confines itself to minimum requirements for incineration and incineration plants.

(6)      Further, Article 174 provides that Community policy on the environment  is to contribute to protecting human health.

(7)      Therefore, a high level of environmental protection and human health protection requires the setting and maintaining of stringent operational conditions, technical requirements and emission limit values for plants incinerating or co-incinerating waste within the Community. The limit values set should prevent or  limit as far as practicable negative effects on the environment and the resulting risks to  human  health.

(8)      The  Communication  from  the  Commission  on   the review of the  Community Strategy for waste management assigns prevention of waste the first priority, followed  by  reuse  and  recovery  and  finally by  safe disposal of waste; in its Resolution of 24 February 1997 on a Community Strategy for waste management (6), the Council reiterated its conviction that  waste prevention should be the first priority of any national waste policy in relation to minimising waste production and the hazardous  properties  of waste.

(9)       In its Resolution of 24 February 1997  the Council also underlines the importance of Community criteria concerning the use of waste, the need for appropriate emission standards to apply to incineration facilities, the need for monitoring measures to be envisaged for existing incineration plants, and the need for the Commission to consider amending Community legisla- tion in relation to the incineration of waste with energy recovery in  order  to  avoid  large-scale movements  of waste for incineration or co-incineration in the Community.

(10)     It is necessary to set strict rules for all plants incinerating or co-incinerating waste in order to avoid transboundary movements to plants operating at lower costs due to less stringent  environmental  standards.

(11)     The Communication  from  the  Commission/energy for the future: renewable sources of energy/White paper for a Community strategy and action plan takes into consid- eration in particular the use of biomass for energy purposes.

(12)     Council Directive 96/61/EC (1)  sets  out  an  integrated approach to pollution prevention and control in which all the aspects of an installations environmental performance  are  considered in  an  integrated  manner. Installations for the incineration of municipal waste with a capacity exceeding 3 tonnes per hour and installations for the disposal or recovery of hazardous waste with a capacity  exceeding  10  tonnes  per  day  are  included within  the  scope of the  said Directive.

(13)     Compliance with the emission limit values laid down by this Directive should be regarded as a necessary but not sufficient condition  for  compliance  with  the  require- ments  of  Directive 96/61/EC.  Such  compliance  may involve more  stringent  emissions limit  values for  the pollutants  envisaged by  this  Directive, emission  limit values for other substances and other media, and other appropriate  conditions.

(14)     Industrial  experience in  the  implementation  of  tech- niques for  the  reduction  of  polluting  emissions from incineration plants has been acquired over a period of ten  years.

(15)     Council  Directives 89/369/EEC (2)  and  89/429/EEC (3) on the prevention and reduction of air pollution from municipal waste incineration plants have contributed to the  reduction  and  control  of  atmospheric  emissions from  incineration  plants.  More stringent  rules should now be adopted and those Directives should accordingly be repealed.

16)      The distinction between hazardous and non-hazardous waste is based principally on  the  properties  of  waste prior to incineration or co-incineration but not on differences in emissions. The same emission limit values should apply to  the  incineration or  co-incineration of hazardous and non-hazardous waste but different tech- niques and conditions of incineration or co-incineration and  different monitoring  measures upon  reception  of waste should  be retained.

(17)    Member   States  should   take   into   account   Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of  nitrogen,  particulate  matter  and  lead  in  ambient air (4)  when  implementing  this Directive.(18)    The incineration of hazardous waste with a content of more   than   1 %   of  halogenated  organic  substances, expressed as chlorine, has to comply with certain opera- tional conditions in order to  destroy as many organic pollutants  such as dioxins as possible.(19)    The incineration of waste which contains chlorine gener- ates flue gas residues. Such residues should be managed in a way that minimises their amount and harmfulness.(20)    There may be grounds to provide for specified exemp- tions to  the emission limit values for some pollutants during  a  specified time  limit  and  subject  to  specific conditions.(21)    Criteria for certain sorted combustible fraction of non- hazardous  waste not  suitable for recycling, should  be developed in  order  to  allow the  authorisation  of  the reduction of the frequency of periodical measurements.(22)    A single text on the incineration of waste will improve legal clarity and enforceability. There should be a single directive for the incineration and co-incineration of hazardous  and  non-hazardous  waste taking fully into account the substance and structure of Council Directive 94/67/EC of 16 December 1994  on the incineration of hazardous   waste (5).    Therefore   Directive   94/67/EC should  also be repealed.(23)     Article 4  of Council Directive 75/442/EEC of 15  July 1975  on waste (6)  requires Member States to take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed  of  without  endangering  human  health  and without harming the environment. To this end, Articles 9  and  10  of that  Directive provide that  any plant  or undertaking treating waste must obtain a permit from the  competent  authorities  relating,  inter alia, to  the precautions  to  be taken.(24)     The requirements for recovering the heat generated by the incineration or co-incineration process and for mini- mising and recycling residues resulting from the opera- tion of incineration or co-incineration plants will assist in  meeting  the  objectives of  Article 3  on  the  waste hierarchy of Directive 75/442/EEC.(25)     Incineration  and  co-incineration  plants  treating  only animal waste regulated by Directive 90/667/EEC (1)  are excluded from the scope of this Directive. The Commission intends to propose a revision to the requirements of Directive 90/667   with  a  view to  providing  for  high environmental standards for the incineration and co- incineration  of animal waste.(26)     The permit for an incineration or co-incineration plant shall also comply with any applicable requirements laid down in Directives 91/271/EEC (2), 96/61/EC, 96/62/EC (3),  76/464/EEC (4),  and  1999/31/EC (5).(27)     The  co-incineration  of  waste  in  plants  not  primarily intended to incinerate waste should not  be allowed to cause higher emissions of polluting substances in that part  of  the  exhaust  gas  volume  resulting  from  such co-incineration than those permitted for dedicated incineration plants and should, therefore, be subject to appropriate limitations.(28)     High-standard measurement techniques are required to monitor emissions to ensure compliance with the emission limit values for the  pollutants.(29)     The  introduction   of  emission  limit  values  for   the discharge of waste water from the cleaning of exhaust gases from incineration and co-incineration plants will limit a transfer of pollutants  from  the  air into  water.(30)     Provisions should  be  laid  down  for  cases where  the emission limit values are exceeded as well as for technically unavoidable stoppages, disturbances or failures of the  purification devices or  the  measurement  devices.

(31)     In  order   to   ensure  transparency  of  the  permitting process throughout  the Community the public should have access to information with a view to allowing it to be involved in decisions to be taken following applications for new permits and their subsequent updates. The public should have access to reports on the functioning and monitoring of the plants burning more than three tonnes per hour in order to be informed of their potential effects on  the  environment  and  human  health.

(32)    The Commission should present a report  both  to  the European Parliament and the Council based on the experience of applying this Directive, the new scientific knowledge gained, the development of the state of technology, the progress achieved in emission control techniques, and on the experience made in waste management and operation of the plants and on the development  of  environmental  requirements, with  a  view to proposing,  as appropriate,  to  adapt  the  related provisions of this Directive.

(33)    The measures necessary for the implementation of this Directive are to be adopted in accordance with Council Decision 1999/468/EC  of 28  June 1999  laying down the procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on  the  Commission (6).

(34)    Member  States  should  lay  down  rules  on  penalties applicable to  infringements  of  the  provisions  of  this Directive and ensure that  they are implemented; those penalties should  be effective, proportionate  and dissuasive,

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