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Introduction to Incineration
In this article, we discuss the basics of incinerators and the process of incineration in Macrtotec incinerator models V100 and above.
An incinerator is used to dispose of waste products such as general household waste, medical and hazardous waste amongst other typical waste materials including animal and human remains, often referred to as cremators. One of the first all-purpose built incinerators for waste disposal was created in Nottingham, UK by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a design patented by Albert Fryer and were originally known as destructors.
Incinerator technology has come a long way since Albert Fryers destructors in 1874, now in 2016 at Macrotec our focus is to always be on the forefront of Incinerator design, to reduce emissions and improve operating efficiencies while increasing reliability. Waste types usually incinerated are wastes that cannot be disposed of in any other manner; such as hazardous wastes, medical and pathological wastes and animal carcasses.
Macrotec Incinerator waste destruction is achieved by controlled combustion at high temperatures in a primary and secondary chamber. Waste is fed into the primary chamber, manually loaded in smaller Incinerator units and automated via a hydraulic feeding ram for larger units.
Solid waste is then oxidized (combusted) in the primary chamber into gases which then flows into the secondary chamber. The gases in the secondary chamber are exposed to very high temperatures, the extreme heat forces the gas to break their chemical bonds and to become stable — usually into non-hazardous compounds such as water and carbon dioxide.
Modern incinerators also include extensive scrubbing and filtration equipment. Scrubbers neutralize acid gasses (Hydrochloric acid, Sulphur dioxide) and adsorb heavy metals (Mercury, Lead) and dioxins. Filters remove all particulate (dust) from the flue gas. Together these systems ensure that all harmful emissions are removed.
Approximately 3 to 5% of the remaining ash falls through a grate located at the bottom of the chambers and is then removed via ash doors this product is referred to as “Bottom Ash”.
Depending on the waste that has been Incinerated the bottom ash can then be used as aggregate. Uses of aggregate included: Bulk fill, Asphalt, Cement bound materials, Lightweight blocks, Pavement concrete. Alternatively, if there no need for the bottom ash it is also typically disposed of in a landfill.
Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include:
Macrotec’s containerised incinerators to UNICEF in Nigeria, for use at small at regional hospitals and clinics. These incinerators are used for the disposal of medical waste, to increase health standards in these remote areas, and to help prevent the outbreak and spread of highly contagious diseases such as Ebola. Read the full article about Containerised Incinerators to UNICEF.
Macrotec’s complete Medical Waste Incinerator system in Windhoek, that includes flue gas cooling, dry gas scrubbers that do not require any water, and ceramic filters that remove over 98% of particulate matter. The system will be used to dispose of Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW) in the municipal area. Read the full article about the Medical Waste Incinerator in Windhoek.